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50 CLASSIC ESSAYS_缁忓吀闅忕瑪50棣(鑻辨枃鍘熺増锛屽厤璐逛笅杞介厤濂楁湕璇) ...

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鍙戣〃浜 2018-3-13 19:52:07 | 鏄剧ず鍏ㄩ儴妤煎眰 |闃呰妯″紡
50 CLASSIC ESSAYS_缁忓吀闅忕瑪50棣(鑻辨枃鍘熺増锛屽厤璐逛笅杞介厤濂楁湕璇) - 浼壒鍏扳㈢綏绱

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Table of Contents
ALL IS NOT GOLD THAT GLITTERS
AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: 鈥淲HAT IS ENLIGHTENMENT?鈥
THE AWFUL GERMAN LANGUAGE
BEFORE THE DIET OF WORMS
CATS
CHEESE
DARWIN鈥橲 VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
THE DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ENJOYMENT PRESENTED BY THE CONTEMPLATION OF NATURE
DREAM-CHILDREN
THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
A FREE MAN鈥橲 WORSHIP
THE FUTURE OF ASTRONOMY
A GENERAL VIEW OF THEOSOPHY
GIFTS
HOW PAIN LEADS TO KNOWLEDGE AND POWER
THE KNOWLEDGE OF SELF
LINCOLN鈥橲 LAST HOURS
THE MAN WHO THINKS BACKWARDS
THE MEANING AND METHOD OF SPIRITUAL LIFE
MEDITATION 17
A MESSAGE TO GARCIA
A MODEST PROPOSAL
NEVER AGAIN!
NIGHT AND MOONLIGHT
OF TRUTH
ON ENGLISH COMPOSITION AND OTHER MATTERS
ON THE ART OF FICTION
ON THE FEAR OF DEATH
ON THE METHOD OF GRACE
ON THE PLEASURE OF TAKING UP ONE鈥橲 PEN
ON THE TRAGEDIES OF SHAKESPEARE
ON THE UNJUST CAUSES OF WAR
OUR CHILDREN AND GREAT DISCOVERIES
OUR FRIEND THE DOG
THE PHILOSOPHY OF BIRDS鈥 NESTS
THE PHILOSOPHY OF COMPOSITION

THE PLACE OF SCIENCE IN A LIBERAL EDUCATION
PUBLIC PRAYER
THE RHYTHM OF LIFE
THE SACREDNESS OF WORK
SELF-DENIAL NOT THE ESSENCE OF VIRTUE
SHOULD WOMEN BE BEAUTIFUL?
SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE LOSS OF THE TITANIC
THOUGHTS ON GOVERNMENT (1776)
THE THREE KINDS OF MEN
TO WRITE OR NOT TO WRITE
TRUTH OF INTERCOURSE
WHEN A MAN COMES TO HIMSELF
WHY ARE ALL MEN GAMBLERS?


THE city has been afflicted for a short time by a curious eruption, a breaking out of jewelry stores with 鈥渓arge placards in their windows, inscribed,鈥 鈥淭ake your Choice for One Dollar.鈥
                                 It is all very well to tell a fellow to take his Choice, but there is, in these windows, nothing Choice to take.
                                 Why should we, or any man, be anxious to possess various small fragments of brass, stamped in fantastic forms, and 鈥渙f no value except to the loser?鈥
                                 These storekeepers announce their wares at Rare bargains, but we believe鈥攚e know, in fact, that this sort of bargain is greatly Overdone.
                                 SPUYTENTUYFEL, who is inclined to be metaphysical, says that the affair is based on a philosophical principle. Every man thinks that there are a few good articles and a great many bad ones in these One Dollar jewehly-mills: and Every man also thinks that he is shrewd enough to pick out the thing upon which the dealer makes no profit. Every man rushes in, then planks down his dollar, and carries off a-What-is-it?鈥攁 connecting link between brass and copper!
                                 It is suggested, however, that there is some gold in the rings, pins, brooches, lockets, pencil-cases, etc. etc., of the One Dollar shops. Oreide, the composition of which they are made, is said to give off, in vapor, when assayed, a faintly infinitesimal quantity of gold. That which remains, is infinitesimally less!
                       
                         
                                 We know of a young lady, to whom some gentleman, more benevolent than judicious, presented a chain, bought as a 鈥淩are Bargain鈥 for one dollar. The maiden, having no rooted antipathy to ornaments of any kind, twined the chain about her neck. At night, when making her toilette de nuit, she observed a dark leadcolored ring about her snowy and swan-like throat, reminding her of ELSIE VENNER and some more of a young woman mentioned on page 55 of ALDRICH鈥檚 last volumes of poems, who had鈥斺渁 dark blue scar on her throat.鈥
                                 The next day, this young lady of the chain told a friend that the gold had been polished with whiting or something, that blackened her neck. She was duly surprised to learn that it was only brass, and thundering poor brass at that.
                                 The One Dollar jewels are, in fact, much inferior to the average of decent bell-pulls.
                                 The result of this explosion of jewelry is painful. Of course, it plays the dickens with the legitimate business, and the consequence is, that all the respectable stores have to inaugurate a One Dollar department, in which they sell as bad jewelry as anybody. The metropolis is inundated with it. The East Side absolutely gleams, glitters, glows, glares, shines, shimmers and scintillates with it. Every bookbinderess and prentice boy possesses a mass of trinkets that, in size and number at least, rival the Crown Jewels of many a kingdom.
                                 And they tell us that the country-the far and pleasing agricultural districts鈥攕warm with similar shops! Woe! woe to the Arcadian loiterer of the coming Summer! AMARYLLIS will shine in tawdry bracelets, and DAPHNIS will sport a hideous locket. A monstrous mosaic will rise and fall upon the bosom of PHILLIS, and the sheep will gaze in wonder upon the gorgeous guard-chain of their formosum pastor CORYDON!
                       
                         
                                 But when the Summer has come and gone-when the moist air and earthy exhalations of the country shall have done their work, AMARYLLIS will look with disgust upon a pile of greenish and odorous things, stained and blackened by verdigris, and say, with a regretful voice: 鈥淭hese are my jewels!鈥


ON THE UNJUST CAUSES OF WAR
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 By Hugo Grotius
                                 1. In a former part of this work, where the justice of war was discussed, it was observed that some wars were founded upon real motives and others only upon colourable pretexts. This distinction was first noticed by Polybius, who calls the pretexts, 蟺蟻慰蠁伪蟽蔚喂蟼, and the real causes, 峒喂蟿喂伪蟼. Thus Alexander made war upon Darius, under the pretence of avenging the former wrongs done by the Persians to the Greeks. But the real motive of that bold and enterprising hero, was the easy acquisition of wealth and dominion, which the expeditions of Xenophon and Agesilaus had opened to his view.
                                 In the same manner, a dispute about Saguntum furnished the Carthaginians with colourable motives for the second Punic war, but, in reality, they could not brook the indignity of having consented to a treaty, which the Romans had extorted from them at an unfavourable moment; and more especially as their spirits were revived by their recent successes in Spain. The real causes assigned by Thucydides for the Peloponnesian war, were the jealousies entertained by the Lacedaemonians of the then growing power of the Athenians, though the quarrels of the Corcyreans, Potidaens, and other secondary states were made the ostensible reasons.
                                 2. There are some who have neither ostensible reasons, nor just causes to plead for their hostilities, in which, as Tacitus says, they engage from the pure love of enterprise and danger. A disposition to which Aristotle gives the name of ferocity. And in the last book of his Nicomachian Ethics, he calls it a bloody cruelty to convert friends into enemies, whom you may slaughter.
                       
                         
                                 3. Though most powers, when engaging in war, are desirous to colour over their real motives with justifiable pretexts, yet some, totally disregarding such methods of vindication, seem able to give no better reason for their conduct, than what is told by the Roman Lawyers of a robber, who being asked, what right he had to a thing, which he had seized, replied, it was his own, because he had taken it into his possession? Aristotle in the third book of his Rhetoric, speaking of the promoters of war, asks, if it is not unjust for a neighbouring people to be enslaved, and if those promoters have no regard to the rights of unoffending nations? Cicero, in the first book of his Offices, speaks in the same strain, and calls 鈥渢he courage, which is conspicuous in danger and enterprise, if devoid of justice, absolutely undeserving of the name of valour. It should rather be considered as a brutal fierceness outraging every principle of humanity.鈥
                                 4. Others make use of pretexts, which though plausible at first sight, will not bear the examination and test of moral rectitude, and, when stripped of their disguise, such pretexts will be found fraught with injustice. In such hostilities, says Livy it is not a trial of right, but some object of secret and unruly ambition, which acts as the chief spring. Most powers, it is said by Plutarch, employ the relative situations of peace and war, as a current specie, for the purchase of whatever they deem expedient.
                                 By having before examined and established the principles of just and necessary war, we may form a better idea of what goes to constitute the injustice of the same. As the nature of things is best seen by contrast, and we judge of what is crooked by comparing it with what is straight. But for the sake of perspicuity, it will be necessary to treat upon the leading points.
                       
                         
                                 It was shewn above that apprehensions from a neighbouring power are not a sufficient ground for war. For to authorize hostilities as a defensive measure, they must arise from the necessity, which just apprehensions create; apprehensions not only of the power, but of the intentions of a formidable state, and such apprehensions as amount to a moral certainty. For which reason the opinion of those is by no means to be approved of, who lay down as a just ground of war, the construction of fortifications in a neighbouring country, with whom there is no existing treaty to prohibit such constructions, or the securing of a strong hold, which may at some future period prove a means of annoyance. For as a guard against such apprehensions, every power may construct, in its own territory, strong works, and other military securities of the same kind, without having recourse to actual war. One cannot but admire the character, which Tacitus has drawn of the Chauci, a noble and high-spirited people of Germany, 鈥淲ho, he says, were desirous of maintaining their greatness by justice, rather than by acts of ungovernable rapacity and ambition鈥攑rovoking no wars, invading no countries, spoiling no neighbours to aggrandize them


50 CLASSIC ESSAYS_缁忓吀闅忕瑪50棣(鑻辨枃鍘熺増锛屽厤璐逛笅杞介厤濂楁湕璇) - 浼壒鍏扳㈢綏绱.epub.epub

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50 CLASSIC ESSAYS_缁忓吀闅忕瑪50棣(鑻辨枃鍘熺増锛屽厤璐逛笅杞介厤濂楁湕璇) - 浼壒鍏扳㈢綏绱

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